DavidBransfordMD ADDICTION ON A GLOBAL SCALE 11 24 2013

In undergraduate school at Macalester College – near the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, I spent most of my research and study time in the lab studying IntraCranial Stimulation with lab rats-  It was believed the ‘pleasure center’ was located deep within the hypothalamus and direct electrical stimulation was more reinforcing than any other known reinforcer…..such as food, drugs, or even water.  Experimental Rats would self-stimulate to point of complete exhaustion,  The stimulation was insatiable.  Then CNS agents were added, such as stimulants, sedatives, and antipsychotics.  Only the antipsychotics reduced the frequency on the self stimulation.  At that time, the U of MN was working with addiction in lab rats.  One of te most influential researchers at that time was Dr Victor DeNoble – who was recruited by Philip Morris to develop a “safe cigarette”

I will let his video tell the story of nicotine addiction…….but please recall that addiction to nicotine, amphetamines, and narcotics follow the same ‘game plan’ As so thoroughly disclosed by David Kessler, MD, PhD – it is a Question of Intent

Strongly recommend his books………also the movie The Insider with Russel Crow as Dr Jeffrey Wigands



                        As stated by Dr C. Everett Koop – nicotine is as addicting as heroin….even young children



I consult with programs addressing addiction…..mainly teens and young adults  As a scientist, methadone and Suboxone

maintenance seems like a reasonable modality, but as a clinician, I usually recommend Abstinence based programs. In the mid 1970s, I was assigned to dispense methadone maintenance to recovering  heroin addicts via VA Hospital System.  Results over time were disappointing.  For me professionally, I concur with Russell Brand with his testimony via British Parliament



                                      So much information just via You Tube on addictions of so many types



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